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And it has not always included the same territory. The Peace of Paris of took away some of the territory and turned it over to the United States. Boundaries were more clearly defined. InLower Canada was renamed Canada East. Together they were called the "Province of Canada. Municipal divisions and their names and functions have changed throughout the history of the province. Seigneuries manors were established on land grants from the king of France.
See Quebec Land and Property for information about seigneuries. Up tothe lower Saint Lawrence River Valley was generally divided into three "governments. Local villages, parishes, and seigneuries were under one of these governments. The British introduced a system of counties and townships. Older counties retained their seigneuries.
New counties were divided into townships. See Quebec Land and Property. The part of the province directly north of Vermont was called the "Eastern Townships" Cantons de l'Est. It was originally settled by English-speaking Protestants. Many of them were Americans with Loyalist connections. Many of their family names are in the history s and township maps in:. Second Reprinting. Reprinted Edition Family History Library Q book Beginning aboutsome of the British county names were changed to French names.
Some townships were changed to municipalities, and their boundaries were changed to match parish boundaries.
See Quebec For Further Reading for a complete description of this book. They still include cities, towns, villages, parishes, and townships. See Quebec Gazetteers. Even if written beforeinformation can be out of date and misleading, so always check publication dates. Simply put, you must understand enough French to use the P. It is not difficult, you need a vocabulary of a few hundred words at most. Entries in Parish registers usually follow a standard format, as do most legal documents. Translate one entry and you have translated almost all except for names, dates and relationships.
There are a of guides written for Americans searching French-Canadian ancestry that will help you with translations of the parish register and legal forms, as well as archaic word usage and old occupations. The Rev. Dennis M. Learn the four following words, you will want to recognize them when you meet them in bibliographies and catalogues:.
If you have never studied French, you have more of a problem, Quebec looking for weekend woman not the one you may think. You need to know how French is pronounced. Phonetic spelling occurs wherever the two languages meet.
You will have to learn to think geographically in both languages. However, for almost two centuries many documents and maps used English names. Do not confuse a reference to St. Official vital records are either Roman Catholic or Non-Catholic. Finding English-speaking Irish Catholics is the same as finding Francophone ancestors. Records and sources are covered elsewhere and will be noted here briefly, or when there are exceptions or special situations in society that warrant consideration.
Local histories tend to cover a single county, city, or region of the Province and if you read one by an English writer and another by a French Canadian, you may wonder if they are writing about the same place. Memorize them! If this material seems to stress geography as much as records and documents, that is because to find the latter, you will have to pay attention to the former. Full address in the Historical addresses section. Before the coming of the railro, few French Canadians had settled in the Eastern Townships.
Some came to work on the early railro but in spite of increasing population pressure in the seigneuries, they avoided the region as long as there were no Catholic parishes.
There were no Catholic parishes because Priests were allowed to tithe only those who held lands under seigneurial tenure. The Clergy Reserves were for the support of the Protestant Clergy.
Francophone professionals and merchants then came to serve them and the Church supplied the schools and other social services. Katevale became Ste-Catherine de Hatley.
The French Canadians has a very helpful index of place names with cross referencing to deal with these changes. You can not settle on land you can not get to. Long before the British appeared on the scene, the French established Roman Catholic parishes  and granted seigneuries on both sides of the St.
The seigneuries varied greatly in size, but most ran inland, perpendicular to the river fronts. Their borders also ran more or less perpendicular to the St. With European settlement came horses and wheels, and these require ro. Superhighways they were not; overland travel was slow, difficult and uncomfortable. The St. Lachine therefore became the place where travellers or fur traders took smaller vessels or canoes for travel west.
Made nervous by the War ofand with lots of unemployed men at the end of the Napoleonic wars, British Army engineers turned to canal building. The Lachine Canal, started inopened inwas enlarged in the s and again in the s. The Soulanges Canal superceded a of shallow canals, some built during the French regime.
The Saint Francis river flows into the St. Lawrence at Lake St. Peter from the heart of the hilly country that became The Eastern Townships. The Townships as we shall call them lie south and east of the river plains of the St. Lawrence and Richelieu Rivers. Between the rows of hills, small rivers and lakes run north-south across the border with the United States. A more modern map of the Eastern Townships is available on the internet.
And a good map showing which townships were in each county in can be found on the Eastern Townships Research. Townships, generally about ten miles square, march in regular rows, three deep along the border, then were adjusted to fit around the backs of the seigneuries. Look at a good relief map of the north-eastern part of the continent and you will see the water routes used by invading armies, refugee Loyalists, and New England settlers:. These water routes all run north-south, and. A new era had begun. Lawrence, to St.
Johns on the Richelieu River. The average speed on that first round trip was It reached Richmond inSherbrooke the following year, and Lavaltrie completed by By the Stanstead, Shefford and Chambly R. Branch lines proliferated. By the turn of the century you could get from almost anywhere to anywhere on a train, often several times a day and back. As soon as the road past the farm led to the village Railway Station, the older children could catch the train to the Model School in the County town, or the Academy in Sherbrooke.
For the rest of the province, consult Lines of Country. In the 20th century, the importance of the railways declined as the truck and automobile took over. Railway passenger service became unprofitable after World War II and now only the main freight lines cross the Townships. Concession ro became highways, widened and paved, with corners rounded and Quebec looking for weekend woman smoothed.
They drive out on the autoroutes. Those who married local women were absorbed into French society and their children grew up part of it. This widely available single volume is based on the early volumes of the computerized database of the P. Try searches under the subject heading: Indians of North America - Captivities. Both groups of soldiers had a chance to look over this newly acquired territory, check out its possibilities, and doubtless meet some of the women.
Some stayed.Lavaltrie, Quebec looking for weekend woman
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